Naming

The process of choosing or creating associative, descriptive, or abstract words that will identify a brand, product, service or feature.

Needs

Necessity that is required. (e.g., crops in need of water)

Negative Brand

A brand that has developed a negative association, usually resulting from an incident, product recall, or fad.

Negative Demand

Demand for a brand which consumers dislike. This exists when consumers are prepared to pay more than the price of the product to avoid having to buy it at all.

Network Effect

A system by which the the value of a product increases as more products/used are sold and the network of users increases. (e.g., Telephones, e-mail, Social Media)

Niche Market

Adapted to the needs, wishes and expectations of small, precisely defined groups of individuals, niche marketing is not commonly targeted by mainstream providers.

Noise

Any influences external to the sender or receiver, which distort the brand message.

Nomenclature System

A system outlining naming principles, systematically organized to reflect the relationships among the entities that form the brand offering. (e.g., Ford: Escape, Explorer, Expedition…)

Non-Durable Goods

Any consumer goods that wear out, or are used up quickly. Their short life expectancy accelerates the replacement cycle. (e.g., drugs, apparel, groceries…)

Non-Packaged Goods

A sub-category of consumer non-durables. (e.g., gasoline/petroleum is a non-packaged, non-durable good.)

Nudge

Any act that attempts to "alter [people's] behavior in a positive way, without actually requiring anyone to do anything at all."
~ Professors Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein.