HomeThoughts & ResourcesBrand TermsN Naming The process of choosing or creating associative, descriptive, or abstract words that will identify a brand, product, service or feature. See: Naming, Nomenclature System Needs Necessity that is required. (e.g., crops in need of water) See: Desires, Needs, Wants Negative Brand A brand that has developed a negative association, usually resulting from an incident, product recall, or fad. Negative Demand Demand for a brand which consumers dislike. This exists when consumers are prepared to pay more than the price of the product to avoid having to buy it at all. Network Effect A system by which the the value of a product increases as more products/used are sold and the network of users increases. (e.g., Telephones, e-mail, Social Media) Niche Market Adapted to the needs, wishes and expectations of small, precisely defined groups of individuals, niche marketing is not commonly targeted by mainstream providers. See: Niche Market, Vertical Market Noise Any influences external to the sender or receiver, which distort the brand message. Nomenclature System A system outlining naming principles, systematically organized to reflect the relationships among the entities that form the brand offering. (e.g., Ford: Escape, Explorer, Expedition…) See: Naming, Nomenclature System Non-Durable Goods Any consumer goods that wear out, or are used up quickly. Their short life expectancy accelerates the replacement cycle. (e.g., drugs, apparel, groceries…) See: Durable Goods, FMCG, Non-Durable Goods Non-Packaged Goods A sub-category of consumer non-durables. (e.g., gasoline/petroleum is a non-packaged, non-durable good.) Nudge Any act that attempts to "alter [people's] behavior in a positive way, without actually requiring anyone to do anything at all." ~ Professors Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein.