Early Adopters

Pioneers in adopting new products and/or services.

Effective Demand

Consumer desire to buy, backed by the means (funds) and ability (opportunity) to do so.

Elasticity

A brand's ability to stretch from one offering to another. An example of this is Apple's expansion from Computers (iMac) to MP3 players (iPod) to telecommunications (iPhone).

Emergency Goods

Items purchased in response to a serious situation or occurrence that happens unexpectedly and demands immediate action.

Emotional Branding

Building brand value solely on the basis of creating an emotional connection, without any form of differentiation or functional relevance, such as features and/or quality.

Emotionally Competent Stimulus

An object, sensation, situation or other stimulus that triggers an emotional response.

End User

These consumers vary from purchasers, in that although they use the product, they themselves may not have made the purchase. For example, a child may consume and have a preference to breakfast cereals, but the purchase may be made by a parent.

Endorsement

Use of an ingredient brand, celebrity or the like, to support and/or add credibility to an allied offer.

Endorsement Brand

This type of Brand Architecture uses the company name as leverage for all product/service offerings. (e.g., Johnson & Johnson)

Ends

The desired or target state. (e.g., goals or objectives)

Enhanced Descriptor

An evocative word that may or may not be trademarked, but differentiates the offer in a proprietary way.

Ethnographics

Also known as Observational Research, Ethnographics is the study of consumers' behaviors and audience segmentation based on those behaviors. By observing consumers in their natural environment, as opposed to traditional focus groups and surveys, a clearer and more accurate picture of what is actually happening can be obtained.

Etymology

The study of the origin and evolution of words.

Exclusion Zone

An area of clear space that must be maintained around a logo, symbol, or wordmark, free from any infringing matter.

Exclusionary Positioning

Defining a brand not by clearly stating what it is, but rather stating what it is not.

Expected Behavior

The rules of behavior that reflect the values of a group and specify those actions that are appropriate and those that are inappropriate.

Experience Curve

The theory that the cost of doing a repetitive task decreases the longer the task is performed.