Decline Stage

The final stage of a product's or brand's life cycle, during which sales fall rapidly.

Degree of Difference

A scale set up to measure the differences within specific product or service traits. (e.g., the degree of difference between crackers may measure in "crunch" and/or "crispiness")

Demand

A measure of those in a market who wish to buy a product and have the means to do so.

Demographics

Quantifiable variables (statistics) within a population, such as age, gender, income level, etc… This does not include classification by subjective attitudes or opinions of consumers. Decisions on market segmentation are often based on demographic data.

Design Strategy

Often confused with Brand Strategy, Design Strategy outlines the brand's aesthetic, ensuring consistent application of brand identity across all points of consumer interaction. A design strategy may be systematic, thematic or both.

Desires

Specific wants shaped by cultural and individual personality. For example, the need to satisfy transportation might be expressed as a want for a sports car and become the desire for a Porsche.

Diagnosis Bias

Blindness to all evidence that contradicts one's initial assessment of a person or situation.

Diderot Effect

The term was coined by 18th century French philosopher Denis Diderot who wrote the essay “Regrets on Parting with My Old Dressing Gown.” In his essay, the author receives the gift of a beautiful new "dressing gown," which he loves. However, he soon realizes it makes all of his other things look inferior. So he goes out and buys new things.

Diderot writes: "I was absolute master of my old dressing gown...but I have become a slave to my new one"… "Beware of the contamination of sudden wealth. The poor man may take his ease without thinking of appearances, but the rich man is always under a strain."

Differential Product Advantage

A technological or emotional product feature that is valuable to customers and is not found in other products of the same category.

Differentiation

Creating distinct and specialized characteristics that are unique to the brand and differentiate it from competitors within the same category, with the intent of creating preference and increased demand. This provides the offering with a competitive advantage.

Differentiator

Any tangible or intangible characteristic that can be used to distinguish a brand from competitive offerings.

Dissociative Media

Communications meant to be relevantly "Disruptive" yet lack meaningful connectivity.

Diversification

The act of a company creating and/or acquiring new brands in new markets to mitigate risk.

Down Market

A brand developed to appeal to lower income consumers.

Dual Representation

The theory that the human brain can assign multiple associations or characteristics to one thing. The Apple logo is an image of an apple, yet we can associate it with the brand instantaneously.

Durable Goods

Consumer goods that have an extensive life cycle and are purchased infrequently. (e.g., automobiles, refrigerators, televisions…)