Quantifiable variables (statistics) within a population, such as age, gender, income level, etc… This does not include classification by subjective attitudes or opinions of consumers. Decisions on market segmentation are often based on demographic data.
The term was coined by 18th century French philosopher Denis Diderot who wrote the essay “Regrets on Parting with My Old Dressing Gown.” In his essay, the author receives the gift of a beautiful new "dressing gown," which he loves. However, he soon realizes it makes all of his other things look inferior. So he goes out and buys new things.
Diderot writes: "I was absolute master of my old dressing gown...but I have become a slave to my new one"… "Beware of the contamination of sudden wealth. The poor man may take his ease without thinking of appearances, but the rich man is always under a strain."
Creating distinct and specialized characteristics that are unique to the brand and differentiate it from competitors within the same category, with the intent of creating preference and increased demand. This provides the offering with a competitive advantage.
The theory that the human brain can assign multiple associations or characteristics to one thing. The Apple logo is an image of an apple, yet we can associate it with the brand instantaneously.