A glossary of brand terms.
Brand Terms
Package Design:

The structural and graphic development of a container in which product is packed, transported, presented, used and serves to support the intended brand position.

Packaged Goods:

A sub-category of consumer non-durable goods. (e.g., Bottled water is a packaged, non-durable good.)

Packaging:

A physical container that serves to protect the product, while clearly identifying and distinguishing the brand from its competitors. For example, beer may be packaged in a bottle (Primary Package), which is then packaged in a "6 pack" (Secondary Package) which is then packaged into cases (Tertiary Package).

Parent Brand:

A strong brand that can stand alone to represent a core product/service or be used to support allied products/services by sharing its brand identity.

Perception Gap:

The degree of difference between consumers' perception of the brand and the brand owner's own view and perception of the brand.

Perceptual Mapping:

Analysis of where actual and potential customers map a brand in relation to competitors. This illustrate two or more brand metrics at one time, to graphically compare and contrast relevant data.

See: Brand Mapping

Performance Gap:

A brand's inability to deliver on consumers' expectations. This is often caused when advertising, public relations, and or packaging improperly influence consumer perception by appealing to reasons or emotions that are not in line with the brand promise.

Pivot:

A change in Strategy without a change in vision. (The term was coined by Eric Ries, author of a best-selling book, The Lean Startup)

Planned Obsolescence:

A tactic by which a brand's earlier offerings are made to appear less desirable in comparison with the brand's newest offerings, by altering consumer perceptions of the desirability of the models they have already purchased.

Point-of-Purchase:

A display that presents a product and provides additional information such as features and benefits.

Point-of-Sale:

Another term for point-of-purchase: A display that presents a product and provides additional information such as features and benefits.

See: Point-of-Purchase

Pop-Culture:

Any cultural lifestyles, brands and/or activities that are well known, generally accepted and widespread within a given population. Also known as "mainstream".

See: Sub-Culture

Positioning Strategy:

The plan of action intended to create a particular place for a product in the market and in the minds of consumers.

Premium Brand:

Any contemporary brand that is respected as holding greater brand value than well-known popular brands.

See: Mainstream Brand, Ultra Premium Brand, Ultra Value Brand, Value Brand

Pricing Strategy:

Setting the pricing structure of an offering to support the brand position.

Primary Packaging:

The first level of packaging that holds a product. For example, the carton that holds eggs, the bottle that contains beer or the jar that holds pickels.

See: Packaging

Private Label:

A product or service brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, dealer, or merchant, as opposed to the manufacturer, producer or service provider of the offering.

Product Line:

A group of products, manufactured or distributed by an organization, that are often closely related (functions or benefits) and marketed under the same brand.

Prompted Awareness:

A study of consumer recognition of a brand after either, hearing the brand name said aloud, or seeing the brand name and/or logo.

See: Awareness Study, Spontaneous Awareness

Psychoacoustics:

The affect of sound on human emotion and behavior

Psychographics:

Ideologies that influence individual consumers in terms of specific brand preference on the basis of psychological characteristics.

See: Demographics, Ethnographics

Psychological Pricing:

Pricing intended to influence the consumers' perception of the actual value of a product or service.

Public Brand:

A brand that is considered public domain, is unprotected by copyright or patent, and is subject to appropriation by anyone.

Pull:

Pull promotions aim to generate consumer demand. The offering is pulled through the supply chain as consumers demand that retailers carry the offering, which then creates demand on the producer.

See: Push

Purchase Cycle:

The theory that consumers move through five purchasing phases based on need: Awareness, Consideration, Preference, Purchase, and Repurchase.

Push:

Push promotions make use of a company's B2B marketing (sales force, trade promotion and pricing). The producer "pushes" the offering on to retailers, who then "push" the offering on to consumers.

See: Pull