A glossary of brand terms.
Brand Terms
Early Adopters:

Pioneers in adopting new products and/or services.

Effective Demand:

Consumer desire to buy, backed by the means (funds) and ability (opportunity) to do so.

See: Latent Demand


A brand's ability to stretch from one offering to another. (e.g., Apple's expansion from Computers—iMac to MP3 players—iPod to telecommunications—iPhone)

Emergency Goods:

Items purchased in response to a serious situation or occurrence that happens unexpectedly and demands immediate action.

Emotional Branding:

Building brand value solely on the basis of creating an emotional connection, without any form of differentiation or functional relevance, such as features and/or quality.

Emotionally Competent Stimulus:

An object, sensation, situation or other stimulus that triggers an emotional response.

See: Brand Signals

End User:

These consumers vary from purchasers, in that although they use the product, they themselves may not have made the purchase. For example, a child may consume and have a preference to breakfast cereals, but the purchase may be made by a parent.


Use of an ingredient brand, celebrity or the like, to support and/or add credibility to an allied offer.

See: Halo Effect, Ingredient Brand

Endorsement Brand:

This type of Brand Architecture uses the company name as leverage for all product/service offerings. (e.g., Johnson & Johnson)

See: Brand Architecture, Umbrella Brand


The desired or target state. (e.g., goals or objectives)

Enhanced Descriptor:

An evocative word that may or may not be trademarked, but differentiates the offer in a proprietary way.


Also known as Observational Research, Ethnographics is the study of consumers' behaviors and audience segmentation based on those behaviors. By observing consumers in their natural environment, as opposed to traditional focus groups and surveys, a clearer and more accurate picture of what is actually happening can be obtained.

See: Psychographics, Demographics


The study of the origin and evolution of words.

Exclusion Zone:

An area of clear space that must be maintained around a logo, symbol, or wordmark, free from any infringing matter.

Exclusionary Positioning:

Defining a brand not by clearly stating what it is, but rather stating what it is not.

Expected Behavior:

The rules of behavior that reflect the values of a group and specify those actions that are appropriate and those that are inappropriate.

Experience Curve:

The theory that the cost of doing a repetitive task decreases the longer the task is performed.